Exportando modelos


Neste tutorial vou mostrar como exportar modelos do Max para o formato .X usando o kwexport que é um plugin OpenSource para Max. Em específico vou exportar um modelo para ser utilizado na Ploobs Engine, mas a metodologia pode ser utilizada em qualquer situação.

Vamos exportar uma pequena cena com uma caixa de dimensões 10x10x10. Uma consideração importante é fazer os objetos com medidas coerentes para que os algoritmos de iluminação, sombras e os shaders tenham o resultado que queremos, não exporte com dimensões absurdas e ajuste a câmera no XNA que os resultados não serão os mesmos.

Preparando para exportar

Aqui vem a parte específica do tutorial. Os pivôs do objetos tem que ser centradosa ele pois quando for criado a representação física para ele, esta é criada tomando como zero o pivot do objeto, para tanto na aba, hierarchi,selecione Affect pivot only e depois center to object.

A parte da exportação é uma arte, na verdade composto de vários conceitos por trás.

Geometry

Os mais utilizados são:

Export Normals: Cada face tem um vetor ortogonal a ele, geralmente pra fora que é utilizado para cálculo de iluminação.

Num UV Chanel: Diz qual o canal que foi armazenada a textura a ser utilizada.

Make Y: Torna o eixo Y o superior, o que implica na orientação do outros eixos

Então é importante nos atermos à orientação do sistema de coordenadas, se ele é ditado pela regra da mão direita ou da mão esquerda e isso vai ditar como os valores crescem no sistema de coordenadas. Por isso dependendo da aplicação a ser utilizada é importante nos atermos a exportar setando ou não o Right-Handed Mesh.
Flip Winding: É um atributo muito específico pois inverte a orientação com que os triângulos são formados no modelo, se é sentido horário ou anti-horário o que acaba ditando as normais das faces, pois essas são ortogonais para fora, como disse antes.

Scale Numerator e Denominator: Dita a proporção com a qual o modelo vai ser exportado, é bem útil para não precisar ficar escalando as coisas e ter problemas com bones ou outros efeitos por exemplo.

Export Skinning: Usado para exportar o “esqueleto” do personagem, que é usado tanto com animações pré determinadas ou mesmo para afetar o bone de alguma maneira, por exemplo anexando uma espada na mão de um personagem.

Material

Export Materials: Exporta materiais simples com informações como cor, caso queira usar algum objeto somente como de colisão invisível se faz útil expotar um modelo sem esse parâmetro ligado

Ignore Untextured: Usar esse atributo deve ser com muito cuidado pois não serão exportados os modelos sem textura, em algumas ocasiões pode não exportar, dummyes ou mesmo bones, cameras, enfim, melhor não usar a não ser que tenha certeza que só quer os modelos texturizados e mais nada.

Export Shader: Exporta Shaders aplicados ao modelo como um arquivo “kwxport.fx” com parâmetros setados como no MAX, entretanto depois é necessário ou adaptar a engine ou adaptar o arquivo para que os dois falem a mesma lingua.

Misc Options

Export Compressed e Export Binary: São parâmetros que reduzem consideravelmente o tamanho do arquivo, entretanto fica difícil editá-lo, então no processo de produção do jogo se for necessárias mudanças constantes é aconselhável não utilizar.

Animation Options

Export Animation: Inclui animações do timeline do Max às informações de export. Terão de ser definidos clipes ou pedaços de animação.
First Frame: O primeiro frame da animação atual.

Num. Frames: Tamanho do clipe de animação

Stretch Time: Escala de duração de tempo da animação, podendo deixar mais rápido ou mais devagar do que estava no Max.

Animation Name: Nome do clipe de animação.

Abordei os pontos principais para exportar um modelo, caso alguém tenha alguma dúvida e eu possa responder, não se acanhe

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