Introduçao à técnicas de iluminação 2


Historicamente, o hardware sempre foi o fator limitante para a implementação de modelos de iluminação, inicialmente as aplicações utilizavam apenas cores simples e chapadas para representar os objetos em seguida com o surgimento das primeiras placas aceleradoras 3D apareceram as texturas, na sequência surgiram os primeiros modelos de iluminação implementados em hardware. Por fim tem-se as GPUs programáveis e a possibilidade de implementar qualquer sistema de iluminação. (Ver parte 1 deste artigo)

O primeiro modelo importante e utilizado em larga escala foi o de Phong, por sua simplicidade, alto desempenho e bom grau de realismo (será explicado nos próximos capítulos). As antigas placas de vídeo não programáveis implementavam uma variante deste modelo em hardware.

Para contornar as limitações do hardware de cada geração, foram surgindo diversas arquiteturas para simular  Iluminação local em tempo real. Para facilitar a compreensão, as principais arquiteturas foram separadas em duas classes:

  • Forward Render
    • Single Pass Multi-Lightning
    • Multiple Pass Multi-Lightning
  • Deferred Render
    • Deferred Shading
    • Inferred Shading

Forward Render

As técnicas desta classe são caracterizadas por, em um mesmo passo, realizar os cálculos de iluminação e de geometria (desenho dos modelos). A grande maioria dos jogos eletrônicos atuais ainda utiliza este tipo de arquitetura.

Deferred Render

A principal característica desta classe é a clara separação entre o passo de iluminação e o desenho dos modelos. Nos últimos dois anos vêm sendo utilizada com maior freqüência pelos desenvolvedores de jogos.

A idéia desses dois post era contextualizar quanto a alguns apectos de técnicas de iluminação

Para mais artigos sobre computacão gráfica, olhem aqui.

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